Paper is published in Journal of Surface Investigation. X-ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques
Grazing Incidence Off-Plane Lamellar Grating as a Beam Splitter for a 1-Å Free Electron Laser
L. I. Goray
A beam splitter based on the diffraction grating working in the grazing incidence conical diffraction is proposed for x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) experiments with coherent beams in plasma and atomic physics. Such a beam splitter can provide undistorted wavefronts, high-power radiation scattering, and split beams with equal intensities, which propagate with delay along different paths to the target chamber of the XFEL end station. Using the PCGrate software based on rigorous electromagnetic theory and developed for the short wavelength range, it is shown that the plane grating with lamellar groove profile of a certain depth, operating in grazing conical incidence mount (grooves are parallel to the incident beam), separates three beams in the -1, 0, and +1 orders with close diffraction efficiency. Numerical simulation predicts 23-27% absolute efficiency for 0.1-nm incident radiation in each separated order of a bulk or multilayer grating, taking into account the atomic level roughnesses and interdiffusion. When using a multilayer coating based on Ru/C or Ru/B4C pairs, the optimum grazing angle providing approximately equal efficiencies is ~ 1.038° which is four times higher than for the Pt-coated grating. Such optimization of radiation geometry, groove profile shape, and multilayer coating parameters can be performed for various XFEL wavelengths. The proposed grating, in addition to diffraction, technological, and design advantages over the beam splitter based on a set of perfect crystals, can be fabricated and tested using currently available methods. DOI: 10.1134/S1027451008050248
©Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.